What if learning was as natural and simple as friendship?
Flowing from my teaching philosophy, and sparked by collaboration with tango friend and software engineer Thomas Fischer, I am developing a system of peer-to-peer learning that I believe will contribute to better quality learning and community in this world.
I. About Peer-to-Peer Learning Systems
Monolithic, factory-style education has many serious limitations
One-size-fits all. Every classroom is heterogenous. Individuals have different needs. One-size-fits-all won't fit everyone
Not feasible to train teachers. Relies on training a special class of formal "teachers" - that's expensive and hard to maintain in a changing world
Heavy expense and administrative burden. Convening a group of similar students together at the same time and place is expensive
Time-constrained. Because of the expense of space and teachers, there is hurry and stress to learn things at the pace of the "group"
Can't teach body skills. One-to-many instruction isn't a good fit for helping people learn many kinesthetic, social/emotional skills
Dilutes motivation. Students in a group lose motivation and become disengaged because they aren't interested in the class topic
Hierarchy feeds passivity. Teacher telling students what they should do/think when can lead to passivity and disengagement
Fosters separation. Culture of seeking teacher's approval can foster distancing between students
Doesn't motivate experts. The format doesn't incentivize experts to participate meaningfully in teaching and learning
Peer-to-peer learning systems allow to people learn productively from friends and peers
Micro-learning. A high level of granularity in lessons allows peer-teachers to become good at teaching specific things
Pointability. A P2P system provides a catalog of sequenced micro-topics (a curriculum) so that the learner can point to what they want/need
Lineage. Each peer-teacher learned what they teach 1:1 from someone who helped them, giving them confidence and detail
Self-paced. Without the need to conform to a group's pace and space/time pressures, learners can take the time they need.
Found spaces for learning: Learning can happen any setting where people can get together, like homes, clubs or parks.
- Social motivation.
> Learning what you are interested in, when you want, one-on-one from more experienced peers, one bit at a time, is exciting and generates momentum.
> Helping others learn builds confidence and a sense of contribution and mastery
Builds community. Sharing a learning experience creates a memorable connection that builds community.
Cheap and accessible. Learning could be freely accessible to anyone if supported by well-functioning P2P systems and curriculae.
Student-centered: The learner works with whatever they are interested in or need to learn with a peer helper
Exciting roles for experts. Experts can contribute in new ways: training peer-teachers, verifying skill acquisition, developing curriculae and setting standards.
II. First application of peer-to-peer learning system: Argentine Tango
1) Why tango?
Tango is an improvisational dance that requires two people to fine-tune their attention and movement and work in an intimately coordinated way.
Peer-to-peer learning has been a part of Tango learning since its beginnings, and continues to be an important engine of Tango's growth. During the Golden Age of Tango in Buenos Aires, most people learned tango informally, in homes and social clubs.
Beginners love learning directly from more experienced dancers, and experienced dancers develop confidence and mastery by helping others learn - all while great friendships get built.
Most tango dancers have had the experience of learning a lot from someone who's not "officially" a teacher. And most teachers do all they can to ensure there are lots of more experienced dancers at classes and practicas help out. We set out to add a bit more structure, so that tango buddies know more how to help.
2) The process and approach
Creating a P2P system for Tango is a work-in-progress and development is happening in collaboration with tango dancers in Southern California including at Oxygen Tango in these ways:
Inventing a new format. A new kind of learning format, which we're calling a "learning lab," is a setting for exploring P2P. During a lab, students pair up to work on a missions together. They may teach or learn 3-4 different missions with different buddies. The host teacher circulates to support and correct. At the end, there is an inspiration round where students demo works-in-progress.
Reorganizing curriculum for P2P. Organizing the tango curriculum into tiny "missions," grouped into sequenced levels, and writing concise instructions to help buddies be effective, requires considerable time investment, testing and revision. Our current evolving curriculum is open-sourced here.
Training buddies. To seed a P2P system, some experienced buddies need to learn the missions and how to teach them. How much resources to put into training is a big open question!
Facilitating P2P sessions. After a quick intro on how learning labs work, we want students to pair up as quickly, efficiently, and productively as possible. The best pairing is asymmetric (less experienced dancer + more experienced dancer) and specific (focused on a certain, identified mission). It is important for buddies to have quick access to mission instructions. Analog methods can help (whiteboard matrix, mission checklists on index cards, catalog with mission instructions). An app would be a natural way to organize the information and facilitate the session.
Ensuring high-fidelity learning. Systems of skill verification help people have confidence that they're learning well and time is spent productively. We're developing moments that allow qualified people to confirm that the key lessons have been grasped.
3) Student feedback
What students are saying after Learning Labs:
"Like being kissed by three thousand butterflies. I never got bored. And it made me realize I know more about tango than I thought - learning it can be such a long slog, and teaching beginners reminds me of the progress I've made."
“It's a whirlwind, somewhat of a bootcamp. Come prepared to learn a lot and be comfortable to have your comfort zone be stretched.”
“Super: the format, the thrill and concentration in the space, everybody doing different things.”
“I actually found that to be one of the nicest aspects, the "surprise" of seeing what next and with whom.”
“Realized I am more ready to teach the basics then I thought; beautiful connection”
“It felt good to pass on knowledge that helped me get through those tough 12 months plus"
4) What's next
- Increase awareness around the concept of peer-to-peer learning in Tango
- Catalyze dialogue among community organizers about how to remove obstacles to peer-to-peer learning
- Continue to evolve and improve a trial curriculum for peer-to-peer learning in dialogue with students, buddies and experts.
- Develop time- and cost-efficient systems for training those who want to bring peer-to-peer learning to their community
- Develop meaningful systems for verifying skill acquisition
- Test and evolve low and higher-tech systems for facilitating and administering peer-to-peer learning
III. Exploring the potential of peer-to-peer learning with technology: TeachMe.Now App
Here is a whitepaper on how technology can support peer-to-peer learning: Peer And Mission Based Learning Whitepaper
The TeachMe.Now app is designed to help make peer-to-peer learning more organized and fun. It lets the user:
set up a curriculum buddies can use, or use one that someone else has created
certify buddies to teach specific missions
let experienced buddies "graduate" someone once they've taught them a mission
This is a work-in-progress created by software developer and tango dancer Thomas Fischer in collaboration with Mitra Martin.